Increased Expression of Dachshund Homolog 1 in Ovarian Cancer as a Predictor for Poor Outcome

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Abstract

Objective

This study aimed to determine the functional relationship between the levels of dachshund homolog 1 (DACH1) expression and different subtypes of ovarian cancer and to investigate the possible prognostic value of DACH1 in ovarian cancer.

Methods

Immunohistochemical staining was deployed to determine the protein levels of DACH1. Staining was performed on patient samples, for whom the detailed follow-up data have been acquired during the last 10 years. Normal, benign, borderline, cancer, and metastatic ovarian cancer samples were included in this study.

Results

The results of our study show that DACH1 protein levels increase with the invasiveness of the ovarian cancer. As the cancer progresses from benign and borderline to metastatic, DACH1 protein expression increases as well. Moreover, with the increase in expression, the subcellular distribution of DACH1 changes from nucleus in normal tissue to cytoplasm in cancer. Finally, DACH1 expression levels were compared with estrogen receptor α (ERα) levels, and the results showed that overall DACH1 levels were higher, whereas also DACH1 exhibited increased cytoplasmic expression in ERα-positive ovarian cancer samples.

Conclusions

These results indicate that DACH1 is highly expressed in metastatic ovarian cancer compared with that of normal, benign, and borderline ovarian tissues and that it could play an important role in cancer growth.

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