Omental Biopsy for Surgical Staging of Uterine Serous Carcinoma

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Abstract

Objectives

The aims of this study were to determine the role of omental sampling in staging of uterine serous carcinoma (USC) and to evaluate its impact on patient outcomes.

Materials and Methods

A retrospective study of 106 women with USC who underwent primary surgery between 2005 and 2014 was done. Overall survival, disease-free survival, and progression and recurrence patterns were studied in 84 patients with follow-up over 1 year. Diagnostic characteristics were evaluated for preoperative imaging and operative findings. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate risk factors for omental metastasis. Survival curves were used to compare omental sampling status and the presence of omental metastasis.

Results

Of the 106 patients, 66 underwent surgical staging with omental biopsy (54; 82%) or omentectomy (12, 18%). Eight (12%) patients had metastatic disease in the omental samplings. All 6 patients with macrometastasis had visible lesions or palpable nodules and preoperative computed tomography (CT) was suspicious in 3. In 2 (3%) patients, omentum was not suspicious on CT or intraoperatively but had micrometastases. The negative predictive value regarding the staging CT scan was 92% and of the operative findings was 97%. On multivariate analysis, no variable was associated with omental involvement. Disease progressed or recurred in 40 (48%) patients. The most frequent sites of recurrence or progression were the omentum (23; 27%), peritoneum (26; 31%), pelvis (15, 18%), lung (15, 18%), and liver (12, 14%). Comparing the groups with or without omental assessment, no significant difference was found regarding progression and recurrence patterns, overall survival, and disease-free survival.

Conclusions

Omental involvement in USC upstages patients to stage IV disease and traditional risk factors fail to predict extrauterine disease. Although omental sampling does not influence disease progression or survival, a comprehensive intraoperative evaluation of the omentum is advised as most cases have grossly visible lesions.

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