The Effect of Body Mass Index and Weight Change on Late Gastrointestinal Toxicity in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Treated With Intensity-modulated Radiotherapy

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Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the effects of body mass index (BMI) and weight change during radiotherapy on the development of toxicity in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC) treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT).

Methods

A total of 245 patients were analyzed after undergoing definitive IMRT treatment between 2004 and 2015 for stage IB2 to stage IVA LACC. The patients were divided into 3 groups: underweight (BMI <18.5 kg/m2), normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/m2), and overweight (BMI ≥25.0 kg/m2). The relationships between toxicity, clinical factors, and the bowel dose-volume histogram were analyzed. V45 indicated the bowel volume that received a radiation dose of 45 Gy.

Results

The median follow-up period was 63 months. The V45 was similar among the 3 groups. The 5-year rates of grade 3 or higher late gastrointestinal toxicities were 18.6%, 4.0%, and 4.2% for the underweight, normal weight, and overweight groups, respectively (P = 0.002). In the multivariable analysis, underweight (hazard ratio, 13.99; 95% confidence interval, 3.22-60.82; P < 0.001) and weight loss (> −5%) (hazard ratio, 5.91; 95% confidence interval, 1.75-19.98; P = 0.004) were significant predictors of grade 3 or higher-grade late gastrointestinal toxicities.

Conclusion

A BMI of less than 18.5 kg/m2 and weight loss (> −5%) were associated with a higher risk of grade ≥3 or higher late gastrointestinal toxicity in patients with LACC treated with definitive IMRT. Future research on the development of a standardized and structured approach to improve the therapeutic ratio for the supportive care of patients with LACC is needed.

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