Lectins were used to investigate the cell surface oligosaccharide expression in normal vulvar epithelium from premenopausal and postmenopausal volunteer women. In addition, histologically normal epithelium adjacent to high-grade vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN III) and adjacent to vulvar tumors was examined with lectins for evidence of a possible “field change” surrounding these vulvar lesions. Seventeen vulvar biopsies were obtained prospectively from volunteer women, and 20 and 40 cases, respectively, of VIN III and vulvar squamous cell carcinoma were randomly chosen from pathology archives. Thirteen of the 20 VIN cases and all 40 vulvar carcinomas contained at least 2 cm of histologically normal-appearing epithelium adjacent to the vulvar lesion suitable for analysis. No alterations to lectin binding in normal vulvar epithelium with respect to patient age, menopausal status, phase of menstrual cycle, estrogen therapy, or history of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia were shown. ABO blood group antigen status affected epithelial binding for lectins HPA and UEAI (p <0.005 and p <0.001, respectively). In addition, lectins SNA, MPA, and LCA identified markers of cellular differentiation and maturation. T-antigen expression (as shown by the lectin PNA) was almost universally present in histologically normal epithelium adjacent to VIN and vulvar tumors, contrasting with the lack of PNA binding in normal vulvar epithelium from volunteer women (p <0.001 and p <0.001 ), a finding suggestive of a local “field change‘” surrounding preinvasive and invasive vulvar lesions.