We report 2 cases of papillary cystadenoma, a rare neoplasm characteristic of patients with Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease, involving the pelvic soft tissues of women and probably arising within the broad ligament. In only one of the women was there a history of VHL disease. The other woman was investigated for VHL disease after the diagnosis of papillary cystadenoma and all tests were negative. There has been debate as to whether papillary cystadenomas in women are of mesonephric (Wolffian) or of Mullerian origin and to investigate this we undertook a detailed immunohistochemical analysis. Both tumors were positive with AE1/3, Ber EP4, epithelial membrane antigen, CK7, CD10, CA125, CA19.9, calretinin, and vimentin. One exhibited focal nuclear staining with WT1 and PAX8. The tumors were negative with estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, androgen receptor, CK20, CEA, TTF1, inhibin, RCC marker, and hepatocyte nuclear factor 1β. Although favoring a mesonephric origin, the immunohistochemical findings are essentially inconclusive and not definitive for either a mesonephric or a Mullerian origin. We believe that patients found to have papillary cystadenoma should be investigated for VHL disease if there is no history of this. This is the second reported example of papillary cystadenoma in a woman not known to have VHL disease and the first in which investigations have excluded this disease.