A Report of Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumors With Heterologous Intestinal-type Glands and Alpha Fetoprotein Elevation and Review of the Literature

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Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (SLCTs) are uncommon neoplasms that are occasionally associated with an elevated level of serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP), a marker of germ cell neoplasms, particularly yolk sac tumor (YST). We report 7 cases of ovarian SLCT (3 moderately differentiated, 2 poorly differentiated, 2 retiform) with heterologous intestinal-type glands, 6 of which were associated with elevated serum AFP. The intestinal-type mucinous glands were immunoreactive for SALL4 (4 cases), AFP (4 cases), glypican 3 (1 case), CDX2 (6 cases), and villin (7 cases), markers that are commonly expressed in YSTs, although the latter 2 markers would be expected to be positive in intestinal-type glands. We show that heterologous intestinal-type glands in ovarian SLCTs often have an endodermal sinus–like (YST-like) immunophenotype and stress that these should not be misinterpreted as microscopic foci of endodermal-type YST. Cases of ovarian SLCT with elevated serum AFP should be sampled extensively to look for foci of intestinal-type glands, the likely source of the AFP elevation in some of these neoplasms.

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