Distinguishing between uterine neoplasms of smooth muscle and endometrial stromal origin is a frequent diagnostic challenge. We investigated the staining pattern of interferon-induced transmembrane protein-1 (IFITM1), a novel endometrial stromal marker, in endometrial and smooth muscle uterine neoplasms and compared it with CD10 in its ability to differentiate between these two groups. Immunohistochemistry for IFITM1 and CD10 was performed in 20 cases of smooth muscle neoplasms (10 cases leiomyoma, 10 cases leiomyosarcoma), 14 cases of endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) (12 cases of low grade and 2 cases of high grade) and 12 cases of carcinosarcoma. Staining was scored in terms of intensity and distribution (0=absent, 1=weak/<50%, 2=moderate/50%–75%, 3=strong/>75%). A total score was obtained by adding intensity and distribution scores and classified as positive (score 3–6) or negative (score 0–2). IFITM1 was positive in 10 of 12 (83%) low-grade ESSs, 6 of 20 (30%) smooth muscle tumors (leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas) and 11 of 12 carcinosarcomas (91.6%). The 2 cases of high-grade ESS were IFITM1 negative. While both IFITM1 (83%) and CD10 (91%) had high sensitivity in differentiating low-grade ESSs from smooth muscle neoplasms, IFITM1 (70%) had higher specificity compared with CD10 (45%). In this study IFITM1 appears to be a more specific marker of endometrial stromal differentiation compared with CD10 in differentiating low-grade ESSs from smooth muscle neoplasms. Thus, IFITM1 may be a valuable tool as part of an immunohistochemical evaluation panel in this diagnostic scenario.