Is Roifman syndrome an X-linked ciliopathy with humoral immunodeficiency? Evidence from 2 new cases

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Roifman syndrome is a rare syndrome of bone dysplasia, growth retardation, retinal dystrophy and humeral immunodeficiency. Six cases have been reported to date, all of whom are male. We report a boy with clinical features of Roifman syndrome, whose older sister has skewed X-inactivation and a milder phenotype of the same disorder, supporting the hypothesis that this is an X-linked recessive condition. Both children had previously had a provisional diagnosis of Jeune dysplasia, and the boy had neonatal hip X-rays which demonstrated ‘acetabular spurs’ which are seen in a number of diseases thought to be caused by dysfunction of nonmotile cilia, including Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy. This finding in combination with other features such as retinal dystrophy, hepatic and renal disease suggests that the gene which is affected in Roifman syndrome may be involved with the function of nonmotile cilia and that Roifman syndrome may be the first example of a ciliopathy with associated immunodeficiency.

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