Enterostatin inhibition of angiogenesis: possible role of pAMK and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A)

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We utilized a genomic analysis of the response of neuronal GT1-7 cells to enterostatin to identify pathways responsive to this peptide. This information, together with reported properties of the enterostatin receptor, suggested that enterostatin may have an effect on angiogenesis.


To investigate this hypothesis, we studied the effect of enterostatin as an antiangiogenic agent in two angiogenic tissue culture model systems.


Enterostatin induced a 50% or greater inhibition in the angiogenic response of human fat cells and had a U-shaped bimodal dose-response effect in inhibiting angiogenesis in a human placental vein angiogenesis model. To further understand this response, we tested enterostatin's effect in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2 cells) that was subjected to glucose deprivation, a condition known to induce angiogenesis in other tumor cell lines. Phosphorylated AMP kinase (pAMPK) levels and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) mRNA expression were elevated robustly after incubation of HepG2 cells in the absence of glucose for 4 h, but 15 min incubation with enterostatin dramatically inhibited this pAMPK activation and reduced VEGF-A gene expression after 1 h incubation with enterostatin. The AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboximide ribonucleoside (AICAR) induced VEGF-A expression.


These data suggest that enterostatin has an antiangiogenic effect and suggest that it regulates VEGF-A gene expression through inhibition of AMPK activity.

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