Higher incremental insulin area under the curve during oral glucose tolerance test predicts less food intake and weight gain

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To investigate the correlation of peripheral insulin concentrations with food intake and body weight.


Cross sectional and longitudinal clinical study: we investigated the association of peripheral insulin concentrations in response to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with subsequent measures of ad libitum food intake and body weight change.


Food intake analysis: Pima Indians (n = 67, 63% male; body mass index (mean±s.d.) 34.2±9.4 kgm-2) with normal glucose regulation (NGR; fasting glucose <5.6 mmol l-1 and 2-h glucose <7.8 mmol l-1) participated in a study of ad libitum food intake measured over 3 days by an automated vending machine system. Weight change analysis: Pima Indians with NGR (n = 339) who also participated in a longitudinal study of risks for type 2 diabetes and had follow-up weights.


Food intake analysis: incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for insulin during the OGTT was negatively associated with mean daily ad libitum energy intake (DEI) (r = -0.26, P = 0.04), calories consumed as percent weight-maintenance energy needs (%WMEN) (r = -0.38, P = 0.002) and carbohydrate intake (gram per day) (r = -0.35, P = 0.005). Adjustment for age and sex attenuated the association of iAUC with DEI (P = 0.06) not with %WMEN and carbohydrate intake (P = 0.005, P = 0.008). Weight change analysis: after adjustment for age, sex, follow-up time and initial body weight, higher insulin iAUC predicted less absolute and percent weight change (β = -6.9, P = 0.02; β = -0.08, P = 0.008, respectively).


In healthy Pima Indians with NGR, higher plasma iAUC during an OGTT predicted lower food intake and carbohydrate consumption and less weight gain. These data indicated a role for peripheral insulin as a negative feedback signal in the regulation of energy intake and body weight.

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