Viscous or gel-forming dietary fibers can increase satiety by a more firm texture and increased eating time. Effects of viscous or gel-forming fibers on satiety by post-ingestive mechanisms such as gastric emptying, hormonal signals, nutrient absorption or fermentation are unclear. Moreover, it is unclear whether the effects persist after repeated exposure.OBJECTIVE:
To investigate satiety and energy intake after single and repeated exposure to gelled fiber by post-ingestive mechanisms.DESIGN:
In a two-arm crossover design, 32 subjects (24 female subjects, 21±2 y, BMI 21.8±1.9 kg m-2) consumed test foods once daily for 15 consecutive days, with 2 weeks of washout. Test foods were isocaloric (0.5 MJ, 200 g) with either 10 g gel-forming pectin or 3 g gelatin and 2 g starch, matched for texture and eating time. Hourly satiety ratings, ad libitum energy intake and body weight were measured on days 1 (single exposure) and 15 (repeated exposure). In addition, hourly breath hydrogen, fasting glucose, insulin, leptin and short-chain fatty acids were measured.RESULTS:
Subjects rated hunger, desire to eat and prospective intake about 2% lower (P<0.015) and fullness higher (+1.4%; P = 0.041) when they received pectin compared with control. This difference was similar after single and repeated exposure (P>0.64). After receiving pectin, energy intake was lower (-5.6%, P = 0.012) and breath hydrogen was elevated (+12.6%, P = 0.008) after single exposure, but not after repeated exposure. Fasting glucose concentrations were higher both after single and repeated exposure to pectin ( + 2.1%, P = 0.019). Body weight and concentrations of insulin, leptin and short-chain fatty acids did not change during the study.CONCLUSIONS:
Gelled pectin can increase satiety and reduce energy intake by post-ingestive mechanisms. Although the effects were small, the effects on satiety were consistent over time, whereas the effects on energy intake reduction were not.