The use of bisphenol A (BPA) in consumer products and food packaging has been associated under certain conditions with a risk of negative health outcomes. This prompted its removal from many products and replacement with structural analogs. Bisphenol S (BPS) is one such analog, but its metabolic effects have not been fully characterized. The objective of our study was to determine whether BPS functions similarly to BPA at inducing adipogenesis.METHODS:
Murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were used to evaluate and compare the adipogenic potential of BPS to BPA. Cells were treated with 0.01-50 μM BPS or 0.01-50 μM BPA and adipogenic effects were measured. Further, their ability to activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), an adipogenic transcription factor, was also determined.RESULTS:
Our results indicate that treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with BPS induced lipid accumulation and increased mRNA and protein expression of key adipogenic markers (1-50 μM; P < 0.05). BPS treatment resulted in a higher expression of adipogenic markers as well as greater lipid accumulation when compared with BPA treatment. We showed that BPS can upregulate lipoprotein lipase, adipocyte protein 2, PPARγ, perilipin, adipsin and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha mRNA expression levels. Furthermore, using transcriptional assays, we showed that BPS and BPA can modestly activate PPARγ using a PPRE (PPARγ response element)-dependent luciferase construct by 1.5-fold (P < 0.05). However, BPS but not BPA was able to competitively inhibit rosiglitazone (ROSI)-activated PPARγ, suggesting that BPS interacts with PPARγ distinctly from BPA. Co-treatment of cells with the selective PPARγ antagonist GW9662 inhibits BPS-, BPA-, ROSI- but not dexamethasone-dependent adipogenic differentiation.CONCLUSIONS:
Both BPA and BPS can enhance 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner and require PPARγ to induce adipogenesis. Through direct comparison, we show that BPS is a more potent adipogen than BPA.