Combatting overweight or obesity can lead to large fluctuations in an individual's body weight, often referred to as weight cycling or ‘yo-yo’ dieting. Current evidence regarding the potentially damaging effects of these changes is conflicting.METHODS:
Here, we assess the metabolic effects of weight cycling in a murine model, comprising three dietary switches to normal or high-fat diets at 6 week intervals; male C57BL/6 mice were fed either a control (C) or high-fat (F) diet for 6 weeks (n = 140/group). C and F groups were then either maintained on their initial diet (CC and FF, respectively) or switched to a high-fat (CF) or control (FC) diet (n = 35/group). For the final 6 week interval, CC and CF groups were returned to the control diet (CCC and CFC groups), while FC and FF groups were placed on a high-fat diet (FCF and FFF) (n = 28/group).RESULTS:
For the majority of metabolic outcomes changes aligned with dietary switches; however, assessment of neuropeptides and receptors involved in appetite regulation and reward signalling pathways reveal variable patterns of expression. Furthermore, we demonstrate that multiple cycling events leads to a significant increase in internal fat deposition, even when compared with animals maintained on a high-fat diet (internal fat: FCF: 7.4 ± 0.2 g vs FFF: 5.6 ± 0.2 g; P < 0.01).CONCLUSIONS:
Increased internal adipose tissue is strongly linked to the development of metabolic syndrome associated conditions such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and hypertension. Although further work will be required to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the neuronal control of energy homoeostasis, these studies provide a causative link between weight cycling and adverse health.