In 2007 we conducted a field study of almost 6 mo to determine the distribution of Callicebus oenanthe, formerly known as the Andean titi monkey. There previously has been no extensive study on the distribution and status by other fieldworkers. We visited a total of 96 localities within or around the presumed distribution of this rare primate species to determine the distribution of Callicebus oenanthe. We collected additional information on group size and threats to the species. Our expeditions revealed that the species is not endemic to the Alto Mayo Valley, as earlier authors suggested, but that its distribution extends into the Bajo Mayo and Huallaga Central. The study area is heavily deforested, and to date only one area was found where a viable population might live, although further research is needed to confirm this. The species lives in the southern part of its distribution in sympatry with another, undescribed species of Callicebus. We will continue the study to determine more precisely the distribution and conservation status of the Callicebus oenanthe, to determine if conservation measures are necessary for this species. This is the first activity of a long-term project for the conservation of Callicebus oenanthe initiated by La Vallée des Singes Primate park.