Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was recently shown to promote triacylglycerol hydrolysis in human white adipocytes both in vitro and in vivo through a cGMP-dependent pathway. The ANP-stimulated lipolytic effect is known to be specific to primates. In this study, we compared the lipolytic effect of different natriuretic peptides obtained from several species, including ANP from human, rat, chicken, frog, and eel, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) from porcine and rat, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) from human, chicken, and frog, Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide (DNP), urodilatin, and des-[Gln18, Ser19, Gly20, Leu21, Gly22]-ANP (C-ANP), on human and rat adipocytes. We also compared the amount of intracellular cGMP produced in both human and rat adipocytes that were treated with natriuretic peptides. Among these NPs, rat ANP, as well as porcine and rat BNP, DNP and urodilatin showed the ability to elevate intracellular cGMP and to stimulate lipolysis as human ANP. No natriuretic peptide showed the ability to stimulate lipolysis in rat adipocytes, though some of them induced significant elevation of intracelluar cGMP concentrations. These results suggest that ANP and BNP from species close to human have the ability to induce lipolysis in human adipocytes.