Validation of the French version of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire

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To assess the psychometric properties of the French version of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire (HSOPSC) and study the hierarchical structure of the measured dimensions.


Cross-sectional survey of the safety culture.


18 acute care units of seven hospitals in South-western France.


Full- and part-time healthcare providers who worked in the units.



Main outcome measures

Item responses measured with 5-point agreement or frequency scales.

Data analyses

A principal component analysis was used to identify the emerging components. Two structural equation modeling methods [LInear Structural RELations (LISREL) and Partial Least Square (PLS)] were used to verify the model and to study the relative importance of the dimensions. Internal consistency of the retained dimensions was studied. A test–retest was performed to assess reproducibility of the items.


Overall response rate was 77% (n = 401). A structure in 40 items grouped in 10 dimensions was proposed. The LISREL approach showed acceptable data fit of the proposed structure. The PLS approach indicated that three dimensions had the most impact on the safety culture: ‘Supervisor/manager expectations & actions promoting safety’ ‘Organizational learning—continuous improvement’ and ‘Overall perceptions of safety’. Internal consistency was above 0.70 for six dimensions. Reproducibility was considered good for four items.


The French HSOPSC questionnaire showed acceptable psychometric properties. Classification of the dimensions should guide future development of safety culture improving action plans.

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