Little is known about sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, among truck drivers in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted among truck drivers in Tongling of Anhui Province. A total of 550 truck drivers were interviewed with a structured questionnaire, and blood samples were collected and tested for HIV, syphilis, and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), and urine specimens for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. Prevalence was 10.6% for C. trachomatis and 8.1% for N. gonorrhoeae. Antibodies for syphilis were found in 0.7% and for HSV-2 in 4.4%, and none was positive for HIV. About 92 (17.4%) truck drivers had at least one STI. There was no statistically significant association between sociodemographic, occupation or behavioural variables and the presence of a positive test for any STI. Our study suggests a high prevalence of STIs, particularly bacterial infections, among the truck drivers, indicating the need for health education, behavioural change interventions and STI care services in this population.