Lactobacillus sp. are commensal organisms that are increasingly reported to cause invasive infections among immunosuppressed persons. However, few data exist regarding the occurrence and risk factors of these infections among HIV-infected persons. Further, the safety of products that contain lactobacilli (e.g. probiotics) in certain populations, including those with HIV/AIDS, is unclear. We report a case of Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteraemia in a patient with AIDS temporally related to excessive consumption of probiotic-enriched yogurt, and provide a comprehensive review of the literature of Lactobacillus sp. infections among HIV-infected persons.