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The aim of this study was to translate the HIV Treatment Adherence Self-Efficacy Scale (HIV-ASES) and evaluate its reliability and validity in people living with HIV (PLWHIV) in mainland China. The original HIV-ASES was translated from English into Chinese and adapted for cultural context according to cross-cultural adaptation guidelines. A cross-sectional survey investigating 1742 PLWHIV receiving antiretroviral treatment was conducted. Exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation confirmed the presence of two factors with an accumulated contribution rate of 58.357%. Furthermore, confirmatory factor analysis revealed the model’s goodness-of-fit index. The comparative fit index was greater than 0.9 and the overall efficacy of the model was satisfactory. The Cronbach α coefficient of the questionnaire was 0.876 (95% CI: 0.868–0.885), and the correlation coefficient of each item and the total was 0.536–0.660 (P < 0.01). The Chinese version of the HIV-ASES has high reliability and validity; however, the individual item requires some adjustment.