Umbilical Lesions: Clinicopathologic Features of 99 Tumors

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Background. Umbilical lesions are rare, and can be benign or malignant. This retrospective study was conducted to assess the epidemiological, clinical, and histologic characteristics of umbilical masses. Methods. Cases of umbilical masses from January 1994 to August 2016 were retrieved from our institution’s pathology databases, and their clinicopathological features were reviewed. Results. There were a total of 99 cases of umbilical masses, 78 women (78.8%) and 21 men (21.2%). Of these, 59 were malignant (59.6%) and 40 were benign (40.4%). Among the malignant cases, 48 were women with a mean age of 65 years and 11 were men with a mean age of 66 years. All malignant lesions were secondary tumors. Twenty-five patients (42.3%) had a metastatic tumor to the umbilicus with an average of 7 months from the original diagnosis (12 gynecological, 8 pancreatic/gastrointestinal, 2 lymphomas, and a case each of breast, prostate, and melanoma). Of the patients with a benign diagnosis, 30 were women (75%) with a mean age of 52 years and 10 were men (25%) with a mean age of 43 years. The benign lesions included epidermal inclusion cysts (15/40), endometriosis (11/40), lipomas (3/40), neurofibromas (3/40), fibromas (3/40), abscesses (2/40), and 1 case each of tubular apocrine adenoma, serous cystadenoma, and calcified nodule. Conclusion. The most common metastatic tumors to the umbilicus are from the adjacent organs with the gynecologic tract as the most frequent primary followed by the gastrointestinal system. Primary malignant tumors of the umbilical region are rarely identified in clinical practice.

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