Multifocal Cytokeratin Expression in a Dedifferentiated Solitary Fibrous Tumor With Heterologous Rhabdomyosarcomatous Differentiation: A Challenging Diagnosis!

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Abstract

We report the case of a dedifferentiated solitary fibrous tumor with heterologous rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation in a 74-year-old male presenting with a rapidly growing, large soft tissue tumoral mass in the gluteal muscles of the right hip. Dedifferentiation in solitary fibrous tumor had not been recognized until very recently and is an extremely rare phenomenon in this tumor type. In the present case, the diagnosis of dedifferentiated solitary fibrous tumor was difficult because of the absence of areas of conventional solitary fibrous tumor with a predominantly poorly differentiated, anaplastic tumor component in the incision biopsy composed of heterogeneous areas with small blue round cell (Ewing sarcoma-like), rhabdoid, epithelioid, and pleomorphic morphology. Moreover, the “unforeseen” strong patchy to multifocal positivity for cytokeratin AE1/AE3 and desmin made the diagnosis of a dedifferentiated solitary fibrous tumor even more challenging in this case. The morphology (presence of branching thin-walled, hemangiopericytoma-like blood vessels) and the immunohistochemical profile (including STAT6 and GRIA2 positivity) were very useful to differentiate this very challenging case of a cytokeratin-positive dedifferentiated solitary fibrous tumor with heterologous rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation from a broad list of differential diagnoses.

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