Benign Fibromyxoid Lesion of the Breast: A Distinct Entity From Benign Spindle Cell Tumors of the Mammary Stroma?

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Myxoid lesions of the breast can be diagnostically challenging entities. We report 4 cases of CD34+ fibromyxoid lesion that have been previously diagnosed as “benign myxoid lesion,” “nodular mucinosis,” or “mammary myofibroblastoma, myxoid type” on the basis of CD34-positivity. The lesions were microscopically well circumscribed and composed of a paucicellular spindle cell proliferation in a background of myxoid stroma. No epithelial component was identified. The spindle cells showed immunohistochemical reactivity for CD34 and smooth muscle actin. Based on morphologic and immunohistochemical similarities between these cases and myxoid myofibroblastoma, we compared 4 myxoid lesions with cases of typical myofibroblastoma, utilizing retinoblastoma (Rb) antibody and fluorescent in situ hybridization for 13q14 gene rearrangement (encoding the Rb gene). The myxoid lesions showed retention of Rb protein by immunohistochemistry, whereas Rb expression was lost in cases of myofibroblastoma. We identified loss of 13q14 in 3 of 4 cases of myofibroblastoma. Notably, 13q14 gene rearrangement was not observed in any of the myxoid lesions. Our data show that there is at least a subset of CD34+ fibromyxoid lesions that, despite overlapping morphologic and immunohistochemical phenotype and proposed common histogenesis with myofibroblastomas, is genetically distinct from the latter based on Rb analysis.

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