Clinical study of bladder cancer: Proteinuria as a predictor of recurrence and efficacy of intravesical bacille Calmette–Guerin therapy

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Abstract

Aim

We studied the clinical characteristics of bladder cancer, with special attention to the clinical and pathological variables that affect tumor stage, relapse and efficacy of intravesical therapy.

Methods

We reviewed the medical records of 152 patients of the Saiseikai Central Hospital who had been diagnosed as having bladder cancer between 1981 and 2001.

Results

The age of the patients ranged from 24 to 88 years, with a median of 63.5 years. The median follow up was 52.4 months (range, 0.5–259.5 months). There was no difference in the incidence of gross hematuria as a presenting symptom among the patients with invasive cancer, superficial cancer and carcinoma in situ (CIS). However, the incidence of urinary frequency and painful urination did differ significantly between patients. Although patients with invasive cancer had a longer time to hospital visit than those with superficial cancer, this time difference was not statistically significant. Presence of proteinuria, multifocality and intravesical bacille Calmette–Guerin (BCG) therapy were the significant predictors of relapse after transurethral resection (TUR). Presence of proteinuria was shown to adversely affect the efficacy of intravesical BCG therapy. In the BCG-treated group, 3-year relapse-free survival was 78.4% for patients without proteinuria and 40.0% for those with proteinuria; this difference was statistically significant (P = 0.0277).

Conclusions

Time to hospital visit did not influence the pathological stage of cancer in patients included in the present study. Presence of proteinuria, multifocality and BCG therapy were the significant predictors of relapse after TUR. Presence of proteinuria was shown to adversely affect the efficacy of intravesical BCG therapy. Proteinuria might be helpful in predicting tumor relapse and efficacy of intravesical BCG therapy in clinical settings, along with other markers.

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