A 73-year-old male with a history of diabetes mellitus was admitted to our hospital for acute renal failure. An ultrasonogram revealed bilateral hydronephrosis, which worsened despite insertion of a bladder catheter. Nephrostomy catheters were positioned bilaterally, and Candida albicans was found in the urine culture. The patient was successfully treated with intermittent direct irrigation and i.v. antifungal agent therapy. Since 1977, approximately 50 cases of fungus balls or fungal bezoars in the urinary tract have been reported, but the majority of these cases have been characterized by unilateral ureteral or bladder involvement. Herein, we report a case of acute renal failure as a result of bilateral ureteral obstruction by Candida albicans fungus balls.