Controversies in perioperative management and antimicrobial prophylaxis in urologic surgery

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The Japanese Urological Association (JUA) recently published guidelines for the prevention of perioperative urologic infections. Although the general remarks in the JUA guidelines are almost similar to those in guidelines previously published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and in the European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines, their differences leave several questions that need to be answered. To clarify agreements and differences in guidelines for perioperative management in urologic interventions for development of more optimal guidelines, reports and reviews previously published were overlooked and discussed. In terms of surgical site infections (SSI) in urologic surgery, consensus for open and endoscopic-instrumental procedures is still somewhat controversial, while a consensus has not yet emerged for its use in laparoscopic procedures. Further research is required to determine what is an optimal prophylactic protocol to effectively prevent both SSI and remote infections (RI).

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