Catheterization: Possible complications and their prevention and treatment

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Intermittent catheterization (IC) is a more preferable method for bladder drainage than indwelling urethral or suprapubic catheterization. Several complications with IC have been described, however, including urinary tract infection, genital infection, urethral bleeding, urethritis, urethral stricture, and bladder stones. To prevent these complications, patients should be well instructed on the technique and the risks of IC. Indwelling catheterization should be used only exceptionally, under close control and the catheter should be changed with adequate frequency.

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