Influence of an Antidiabetic Drug on Biomechanical and Histological Parameters Around Implants in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

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Abstract

Objectives:

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) has a deleterious effect on dental implant integration into alveolar bone, thought to arise from impaired osteoblast function and consequent reduced bone turnover. However, whether controlling blood glucose with antidiabetic drugs is sufficient to improve implant integration is unclear. This study was designed to evaluate implant integration using diabetic rats with/without an antidiabetic drug.

Materials and Methods:

Titanium screws were surgically implanted in each tibia of 20 Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats and 5 nondiabetic control rats. After 3 or 9 weeks, osseointegration was determined by testing the removal torque required to displace the screw and by histological analysis of various parameters of bone formation.

Results:

Removal torque was significantly higher in the nondiabetic control group than in GK rats, irrespective of whether the GK rats had received voglibose. Histology revealed that single-labeled surface area was still high in the GK rats at 9 weeks but had peaked and diminished in control rats. Bone-implant contact area was reduced in GK rats.

Conclusions:

Despite controlling blood glucose, voglibose was unable to reverse the bone metabolic effects of DM.

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