Effect of Metformin on Periimplant Wound Healing in a Rat Model of Type 2 Diabetes

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Abstract

Purpose:

To investigate the effects of hyperglycemia and metformin (a popular biguanide antidiabetic) on periimplant healing.

Methods:

Thirty-six male rats were assigned to 3 groups: (1) nondiabetic Wistar-Kyoto rats (controls), (2) Goto-Kakizaki (GK) spontaneously diabetic rats (GK group), and (3) GK rats were fed metformin (100 mg/kg body weight per day) in their water for 4 weeks (GK + Met group). The right maxillary first molars were extracted and sites were allowed 1 month to heal. Titanium implants (1 × 3 mm) were placed in healed extraction sites. Six rats from each group were analyzed at weeks 1 and 4 by micro computed tomography for bone/implant contact ratio, percent bone volume, trabecular number, and bone mineral density. Blood was also analyzed for glucose, HbA1c, and pyridinoline (PYD).

Results:

At week 1, glucose levels in the GK-Met rats were high, and all bone parameters were similar to GK rats (lower bone parameters and higher PYD than controls). At week 4, glucose levels in the GK-Met rats and all parameters were similar to controls.

Conclusions:

Hyperglycemic GK type 2 diabetic rats showed improved blood glucose and wound healing around oral implants after metformin administration.

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