Stage Characterization and Marginal Bone Loss Evaluation Up to 96 Months of Crestal Sinus Augmentation With Sequential Drills: A Retrospective Study

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Abstract

Introduction:

The 2-stage crestal approach to augment the maxillary sinus is a little-used technique. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess events characterizing stages of this technique after implant placement in the posterior maxilla with residual bone height less than 4 mm and evaluate the marginal bone loss (MBL) changes over time.

Material and Methods:

Thirty-three patients underwent unilateral sinus augmentations using the trancrestal technique with mineralized allograft. Six-months (6 m) after first surgery, if skeletal subsidence prevented insertion of a 10-mm-length implant, additional grafting was performed during implant (n = 33) insertion. Radiographs were taken before grafting (baseline), immediately after and at 6 months; immediately after and 6 months after implant placement; and at follow-up (24–96 m).

Results:

One implant was lost (ISR = 96.97%). Of the remaining 32 patients, 14 (A group) underwent standard implant placement, whereas 18 (B group) underwent additional grafting immediately before implant placement. Given that B-group patients initially obtained lower crestal bone height after first surgery, additional grafting procedures provided greater crestal height in the B group. A significant relationship between ending (eMBL) and 6mMBL was found in both groups, with greater values in the B group. However, in both groups, eMBL was always greater if 6mMBL was greater than 0.44 mm.

Discussion:

Results suggest a high and low skeletal-reactivity patient categorization. In both patient categories, MBL greatly depends upon 6-month values. Investigations are necessary to relate sinus size with results obtained by this 2-stage crestal approach.

Conclusions:

The 2-stage crestal sinus lift procedure not only provides predictable results, but also allows low skeletal-reactivity patient recovery.

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