Evaluation of the Surface Characteristics of Various Implant Abutment Materials Using Confocal Microscopy and White Light Interferometry

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Abstract

Purpose:

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surface characteristics of various implant abutment materials, such as of titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V; Ma), machined cobalt-chrome-molybdenum alloy (CCM), titanium nitride coating on a titanium alloy disc (TiN), anodic oxidized titanium alloy disc (AO), composite resin coating on a titanium alloy disc (Res), and zirconia disc (Zr), using confocal microscopy and white light interferometry. Measurements from the 2 methods were evaluated to see if these methods would give equivalent results. The precision of measurements were evaluated by the coefficient of variation.

Materials and Methods:

Five discs each of Ma, CCM, TiN, AO, Res, and Zr were used. The surface roughness was evaluated by confocal laser microscopy and white light interferometry.

Results:

Confocal microscopy showed that the Res group showed significantly greater Ra, Rq, Rz, Sa, Sq, and Sz values compared with those of the Ma group (P < 0.05). The white light interferometry results showed that the Res group had significantly higher Ra, Rq, Rz, Rt, Sa, Sq, Sz, and Sdr values compared with the Ma group (P < 0.05). All the roughness parameters obtained from the 2 methods differed, and the Sa values of the Zr group from confocal microscopy were greater by 0.163 μm than those obtained by white light interferometry. Least difference was seen in the TiN group where the difference was 0.058 μm.

Conclusion:

Roughness parameters of different abutment materials varied significantly. Precision of measurement differed according to the characteristics of the material used. White light interferometry could be recommended for measurement of TiN and AO. Confocal microscopy gave more precise measurements for Ma and CCM groups. The optical characteristics of the surface should be considered before choosing the examination method.

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