Effects of Abutment Removal and Reconnection on Inflammatory Cytokine Production Around Dental Implants

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The purpose of this study was to examine effects of abutment change on inflammatory cytokine production around implants.

Materials and Methods:

Ten partially edentulous patients with a mean age of 60 years were recruited and divided into 2 groups. External Brånemark implants with anodic oxidized surface were installed and submerged in all patients. In the control group, the healing abutments were delivered at the second surgery, and they were removed more than 3 times till the final prosthesis delivery. In the test group, the final abutments were delivered at the second surgery. At different time points during the treatment, periimplant crevicular fluid was collected, and proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β [IL-1β] and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α) were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The bone level was measured on the radiograms and clinical indices were also taken.


All implants were osseointegrated. In the test group, IL-1β level and probing depths were less in test group patients compared with the control group patients, whereas TNF-α level and bone level were not different between the groups.


Although TNF-α and bone levels were not significantly different, delivering final abutment at the second surgery would induce less inflammation in the tissues around the implant.

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