Maxillary Sinus Grafting With Biphasic Bone Ceramic or Autogenous Bone: Clinical, Histologic, and Histomorphometric Results From a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

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The present, randomized, controlled clinical trial compared the histologic and histomorphometric results from maxillary sinus augmentation with either biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) (60% hydroxyapatite and 40% β-tricalcium phosphate) or autogenous bone (AB) as bone-grafting materials.

Material and Methods:

Ten patients received bilateral sinus elevation surgery with intraoral AB chips (control group) on one side and BCP (test group) on the contralateral side. After a healing period of 6 to 8 months, implant sites were created and trephine cores were harvested for histological and histomorphometric analysis of the grafted areas.


The histological examination of biopsies showed BCP particles interconnected by bridges of a vital newly formed bone. Histomorphometry demonstrated that the amount of newly formed bone in the control group (36.8%) was significantly greater than that in the BCP (28.2%) group (P = 0.0032). BCP and AB cores revealed an average of residual graft particles of 32.9% and 4.8%, respectively. The average percentage of soft tissue components was 38.9% in the BCP cores and 58.4% in the AB cores.


Based on our findings, the amount of vital bone formation was significantly higher for AB than that for BCP. However, BCP seemed to be a biocompatible and osteoconductive material that can be used with success as a bone substitute in maxillary sinus procedures.

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