Alignment of Biological Apatite c-Axis Under Functional Loading: A Preliminary Report

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To understand the bone modeling/remodeling process of functionally loaded implants by observing the alignment of the biological apatite (BAp) c-axis.

Materials and Methods:

Commercially available titanium implants with TiO2 grit–blasted surfaces were placed in the fourth premolar and the first molar of the beagle dog and were functionally loaded with casted crowns and were compared to the non-loaded controls. After being killed, the samples were subjected to histological observation and to a microbeam x-ray diffraction (μXRD) analysis with a transmission optical system to evaluate the preferential BAp c-axis alignment.


The non-loaded group presented mostly nonoriented BAp c-axis around the implant, whereas for the loaded group, preferential alignment of BAp c-axis was observed along the loading direction of the implant suggesting that the Bap aligned itself based on the direction of the functional mechanical loading.


The μXRD revealed that the c-axis orientation was perpendicular to the implant thread working against the functional loaded direction, which may contribute in designing an optimal implant macrogeometry.

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