Osseointegration of Titanium Implants With Different Rough Surfaces: A Histologic and Histomorphometric Study in an Adult Minipig Model

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Many chemical and physical modifications of titanium surfaces were introduced, aiming at improving surface bioactivity, but few comparative evidence exists.


To evaluate histologically in minipigs the osseointegration of implants made of commercially pure (CP) titanium or titanium alloy, treated by different roughening procedures.

Material and Methods:

Three sandblasted acid-etched (SA) surfaces, 2 anodized (AN), and 1 double acid-etched (DAE) were compared. Surface microtopography was characterized with scanning electron microscope; surface element composition was also assessed. One implant per group was inserted in each proximal tibia of 2 minipigs. Three months after healing, block biopsies were taken for histomorphometric analysis. Implant stability quotient (ISQ) was measured at insertion and before harvesting.


The highest amount of cortical bone-implant contact was observed around SA implants and showed positive correlation with surface roughness. The greatest increase in ISQ was observed in CP-AN implants. In the medullary region, SA implants showed the best osteogenic response, whereas inflammatory cells were found around DAE and alloy-AN implants.


SA surfaces were more osteogenic than anodized or dual acid-etched ones, although not significantly. Surface roughness affected osseointegration.

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