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This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the ability of air-powder abrasion to decontaminate dental implants.Twenty-six implants were inoculated with a Streptococcus sanguinis biofilm media in a novel periimplantitis defect model. Six implants served as controls, and 20 implants were disinfected with either the Cavitron JET Plus or the AIR-FLOW PERIO air-powder abrasion units. Residual bacteria were cultured, and colony forming units (CFUs) were totaled at 24 hours.As expected, negative control implant cultures showed no evidence of viable bacteria. Bacterial growth was observed on all positive control cultures, whereas only 15% of the experimental cultures displayed evidence of viable bacteria. The average CFU per streak for the positive control was 104 compared with a maximum of 10 and 4 CFUs for the Cavitron JET Plus and AIR-FLOW PERIO, respectively. There was a 99.9% reduction in bacteria for both air-powder abrasion instruments.Air-powder abrasion is an effective technique for the decontamination of dental implants, and the Cavitron JET Plus and AIR-FLOW PERIO are equally successful at eliminating viable bacteria from implant surfaces.