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To perform a systematic review on the impact of residual subgingival cement on peri-implant diseases and crestal bone loss.MEDLINE, SCOPUS, ISI Web of Knowledge and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases were used to identify articles published without time limits.A total of 6 articles were selected for a total of 389 patients (687 implants). The studies were heterogeneous and had a moderate-to-high risk of bias, but met the inclusion criteria. Four of 6 studies were published by the same research group and assessed similar populations over time. A positive relationship between residual cement and peri-implant inflammation was observed. Data on peri-implant probing depths and crestal bone loss were reported in 1 study.Residual subgingival cement seems to be strongly associated with peri-implant mucositis which is a risk factor for increased probing depths crestal bone loss and peri-implantitis. Zinc oxide eugenol cements should be preferred to resin cements especially in patients with a history of periodontitis.