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The aim of this study was to clinically, radiologically, and histologically evaluate a sinus augmentation technique using a resorbable collagen sponge to maintain space between the Schneiderian membrane and the residual crestal bone.Patients with partially edentulous maxillae were clinically and radiographically evaluated for implant placement. A total of 10 consecutive patients with the bone height for implant placement (<4.0 mm) were enrolled in the study. The lateral maxillary wall was surgically exposed and the Schneiderian membrane was carefully elevated. A collagen wound dressing was placed in the antral area between the sinus floor and the raised membrane. The vertical sinus floor height was calculated using cone-beam computed tomography before the surgical procedure (baseline) and at 6 months postoperative. Immediately after the second scan, a core biopsy was removed for histological evaluation. The biopsy site was then further prepared for implant placement in the same location.Biopsies showed mature cancellous bone with a predominantly lamellar structure. Well-vascularized intertrabecular spaces were filled with connective tissue and bone marrow. Analysis of bone height changes showed significant mean (SD) differences before and after procedures in anterior (2.67 ± 0.62 mm and 11.15 ± 1.1 mm), medial (2.98 ± 0.55 mm and 10.96 ± 0.77 mm), and posterior (3.17 ± 0.91 mm and 10.63 ± 0.51 mm) maxillary jaw locations (P = 0.005).The collagen sponge provided an effective substrate for osseous regeneration of the sinus floor.