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Contamination during surgery negatively influences the prognosis of orthopaedic implants; however, it has not been proven whether contamination influences the success of dental implant treatment. The aim of the systematic review was to investigate if there exists evidence in the literature whether contamination of dental implants during surgery affects osseointegration and clinical success.Four data bases were used for the literature search. Primary studies and reviews regarding both clinical and preclinical research were eligible. Rating of the summarized quality of the evidence was performed.Five preclinical studies were included. Because of the estimated high risk of bias in all included studies and extensive differences in study design between the included studies, meta-analysis was not performed and no reliable aggregated data could be extracted.It is suggested that the scientific evidence with regard to the current topic is insufficient. Further controlled studies are warranted.