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To retrospectively determine the profile of the sinus membrane (SM), potential factors affecting SM thickening (SMT), and the correlation between SMT and sinus augmentation (SA) complications.In the patients who received lateral SA, SMT was classified in sagittal sections of cone-beam computed tomography according to its thickness and morphology. The correlation between SMT and the following factors was analyzed: age, sex, endodontic and periodontic statuses of neighboring teeth, and shape of the sinus inferior border. The association between SMT and SA complications was investigated.SMT of ≤2 mm was prevalent (60%). Irregular SM was mostly observed for SMT of >2 mm. There was no statistically significant association between SMT and the included factors. SMT did not significantly correlate with either perforation or postoperative complications. There was a statistically significant increase in implant failure when SMT was >2 mm, but it was hard to determine that the failure was solely affected by SMT.SMT was not influenced by the factors included in this study, and it might not be a risk factor for SA and implant failure.