Critical Size Defects for Bone Regeneration Experiments in the Dog Mandible: A Systematic Review

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To perform a systematic literature review of studies involving critical size defects (CSDs) in the dog mandible and calvarium to find out the common characteristics of CSDs.

Materials and Methods:

Internet search of the literature was performed on June 2016 based on specific keywords. The search process included 5 databases. The Animal Research Reporting In Vivo Experiment (ARRIVE) guidelines was used to assess the quality of the included studies.


Nine studies have met the inclusion criteria and subjected to quality evaluation. All the defects (N = 156) were located in the mandible. Only 2 articles showed randomized controlled studies, whereas the remaining 7 were nonrandomized controlled studies. The geometry of the defects was either rectangular, box, cylindrical (circular), arch, or saddle shaped.


There is a lack of homogeneity in reporting data on CSDs in the dog mandible. Future animal studies should include a negative control group for an objective comparison and evaluation of any new biomedical materials. More awareness is needed for the Animal Research Reporting In Vivo Experiment (ARRIVE) guidelines to improve data reporting, which can facilitate comparison and reproducibility of future studies.

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