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To evaluate the influence of the presence or absence of keratinized mucosa on hard and soft tissues around implants.Sixteen volunteers with edentulous regions in the distal aspect of the mandible participated in the study. In each patient, 2 solid titanium screw-shaped devices, 3.5 mm in diameter and 5 mm long, were installed. The incision of the mucosa was performed in such a way to allow that, after the suture of the flaps, only the alveolar mucosa surround the test sites and the keratinized mucosa surround the control implants. After 3 months of healing, biopsies were retrieved and ground sections were prepared for histological analysis.Eighteen biopsies from 9 patients were collected for analysis. Both buccal bone resorption and most coronal level of osseointegration were higher at the test sites compared with the control sites, the difference between the 2 sites being 0.2 and 0.5 mm, respectively. The difference in the coronal level of osseointegration between the test and control sites was statistically significant. Mineralized bone-to-implant contact was 70.6% ± 10.9% at the test sites and 71.5% ± 9.2% at the control sites.The presence of alveolar mucosa at implants resulted in a more apical position of the coronal level of osseointegration in respect of the implant margin compared with the presence of keratinized mucosa.