Biological and Physicochemical Characteristics of 2 Different Hydrophilic Surfaces Created by Saline-Storage and Ultraviolet Treatment

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Abstract

Objectives:

Hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of titanium surfaces may affect osseointegration. Ordinary titanium surfaces are hydrophobic. Recently, 2 different methods of storing titanium in saline solution or treating it with ultraviolet (UV) light were introduced to generate surface hydrophilicity. This study compared biological and physicochemical properties of 2 different hydrophilic titanium surfaces created by these methods.

Materials:

Acid-etched control, saline-stored, and UV-treated titanium surfaces were assessed by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The attachment, spreading behaviors, mineralization, and gene expression of osteoblasts were examined.

Results:

Similar microroughness was found on control and UV-treated surfaces, whereas foreign deposits were observed on saline-stored surfaces. Control and UV-treated surfaces consisted of Ti, O, and C, whereas saline-stored surfaces showed Na and Cl in addition to these 3 elements. Atomic percentage of surface carbon was higher in order of control, saline-stored, and UV-treated surfaces. Osteoblasts cultured on saline-stored surfaces showed higher levels of calcium deposition and collagen I expression than control. Osteoblasts on UV-treated surfaces showed significantly increased levels for all parameters related to cell attachment, cell spreading, the expression of adhesion and cytoskeletal proteins, mineralization, and gene expression compared with control, outperforming saline-stored surfaces for most parameters.

Conclusion:

Despite similar hydrophilicity, saline-stored and UV light-treated surfaces showed substantially different biological effects on osseointegration, associated with different surface chemistry and morphology.

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