Histomorphometric Comparison of 3 Osteotomy Techniques

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This pilot study compares the histomorphometric structure of osteotomy preparation through standard extraction drilling (SD), Summers osteotomes (SO), and a new method of nonextraction drilling called osseodensification (OD).

Method and Materials:

Fresh porcine tibia plateau was used as the surgical specimen. Three preparation methods (N = 6 for each) were used to prepare 18 osteotomies according to manufacturer protocols. Eighteen tapered screw-vent (4.7 × 13 mm) implants were placed. After osteotomy preparation and implant placement, all porcine tibias were placed in 10% formalin solution in preparation for histological staining and sectioning. Histomorphometric analysis of all samples was performed to compare immediate bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and the percentage of bone volume within a 2-mm zone surrounding the implant.


OD achieved 60.3% BIC, SO 40.7% BIC, and standard extraction drilling (SD) 16.3% BIC. The percentage of bone volume in the surrounding 2-mm width from the implant body using the same area units per sample was found to be greatest for OD.


This study demonstrated that osteotomy preparation can influence both BIC and percentage of bone volume around the implant.

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