Surface Microstructure of Dental Implants Before and After Insertion: An In Vitro Study by Means of Scanning Probe Microscopy

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The surface microstructure of dental implants affects osseointegration, which makes their accurate topographic characterization important. We defined a procedure for evaluation of implant topography before (pre-) and after (post-) in vitro implantation test in bovine bone.

Materials and Methods:

The apical morphology of ten implants was analyzed in pre- and post-conditions using atomic force microscopy or 3D profilometry. We extracted four topographical parameters (two amplitude, 1 spatial, and 1 hybrid) and assessed the differences by analysis of variance.

Results and Discussion:

The implant with coating (Spline Twist MP-1 HA) was damaged. The two implants with highest pre-amplitude parameters (Pitt Easy VTPS, TLR3815) maintained their character on testing. Pitt Easy PURETEX and OT-F1 were the only nondamaged implants whose amplitude parameters increased. The surface area underwent minor changes even when the texture changed (Tri-Vent, Pitt Easy PURETEX, Exp #1). The implants that ranked the lowest in all parameters before implantation were DT4013TI, Tri-Vent, OT-F1, and Exp #2. On testing, DT4013TI showed the highest decrease in values, whereas Tri-Vent showed the highest increase in surface area. All the experimental implants showed similar topographic properties both pre- and post-test.


For most implants, no major changes occurred in surface topography on implantation. The procedure applied seems promising to evaluate the degradation of implant surface on insertion.

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