The interplay between endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation

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Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress may be both a trigger and consequence of chronic inflammation. Chronic inflammation is often associated with diseases that arise because of primary misfolding mutations and ER stress. Similarly, ER stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) is a feature of many chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. In this review, we describe how protein misfolding and the UPR trigger inflammation, how environmental ER stressors affect antigen presenting cells and immune effector cells, and present evidence that inflammatory factors exacerbate protein misfolding and ER stress. Examples from both animal models of disease and human diseases are used to illustrate the complex interactions between ER stress and inflammation, and opportunities for therapeutic targeting are discussed. Finally, recommendations are made for future research with respect to the interaction of ER stress and inflammation.

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