The interleukin-1 receptor I (IL-1RI) is critical for host resistance toMycobacterium tuberculosis(Mtb), yet the mechanisms of IL-1RI-mediated pathogen control remain unclear. Here, we show that without IL-1RI, Mtb-infected newly recruited Ly6Ghi myeloid cells failed to upregulate tumor necrosis factor receptor I (TNF-RI) and to produce reactive oxygen species, resulting in compromised pathogen control. Furthermore, simultaneous ablation of IL-1RI and TNF-RI signaling on either stroma or hematopoietic cells led to early lethality, indicating non-redundant and synergistic roles of IL-1 and TNF in mediating macrophage-stroma cross-talk that was critical for optimal control of Mtb infection. Finally, we show that even in the presence of functional Mtb-specific adaptive immunity, the lack of IL-1α and not IL-1β led to an exuberant intracellular pathogen replication and progressive non-resolving inflammation. Our study reveals functional interdependence between IL-1 and TNF in enabling Mtb control mechanisms that are critical for host survival.
IL-1-dependent mechanisms of host resistance to Mtb are not well understood. Shayakhmetov and colleagues demonstrate interdependence between IL-1 and TNF signaling pathways in establishing optimal Mtb control, which operates independently of adaptive immunity. The findings might have implications for refining therapeutic approaches to the disease.