The immune system is guided by a series of checks and balances, a major component of which is a large array of co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory pathways that modulate the host response. Although co-stimulation is essential for boosting and shaping the initial response following signaling through the antigen receptor, inhibitory pathways are also critical for modulating the immune response. Excessive co-stimulation and/or insufficient co-inhibition can lead to a breakdown of self-tolerance and thus to autoimmunity. In this review, we will focus on the role of co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory pathways in two systemic (systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis) and two organ-specific (multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes) emblematic autoimmune diseases. We will also discuss how mechanistic analysis of these pathways has led to the identification of potential therapeutic targets and initiation of clinical trials for autoimmune diseases, as well as outline some of the challenges that lie ahead.
Co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory receptors are major modulators of the immune response in health and disease. Zhang and Vignali review our current understanding of the impact of co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory receptors in four emblematic autoimmune diseases and outline the challenges of developing effective therapies for such diseases.