Regulation of NF-κB by the CARD proteins

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Scaffold proteins play pivotal roles in the regulation of signal transduction pathways by connecting upstream receptors to downstream effector molecules. During the last decade, many scaffold proteins that contain caspase-recruitment domains (CARD) have been identified. Investigating the roles of CARD proteins has revealed that many of them play crucial roles in signaling cascades leading to activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). In this review, we discuss the contributions of CARD proteins to NF-κB activation in various signaling cascades. In particular, we share some of our personal experiences during the initial investigation of the functions of the CARMA family of CARD proteins and then summarize the roles of these proteins in signaling pathways induced by antigen receptors, G protein-coupled receptors, receptor tyrosine kinase, and C-type lectin receptors in the context of recent progress in these field.

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