Multipronged CD4+ T-cell effector and memory responses cooperate to provide potent immunity against respiratory virus

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Over the last decade, the known spectrum of CD4+ T-cell effector subsets has become much broader, and it has become clear that there are multiple dimensions by which subsets with a particular cytokine commitment can be further defined, including their stage of differentiation, their location, and, most importantly, their ability to carry out discrete functions. Here, we focus on our studies that highlight the synergy among discrete subsets, especially those defined by helper and cytotoxic function, in mediating viral protection, and on distinctions between CD4+ T-cell effectors located in spleen, draining lymph node, and in tissue sites of infection. What emerges is a surprising multiplicity of CD4+ T-cell functions that indicate a large arsenal of mechanisms by which CD4+ T cells act to combat viruses.

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