are a common source of food- or water-borne infection and cause a wide range of clinical disease in human and animal hosts. Salmonella are relatively easy to culture and manipulate in a laboratory setting, and the infection of laboratory animals induces robust innate and adaptive immune responses. Thus, immunologists have frequently turned to Salmonella infection models to expand understanding of host immunity to intestinal pathogens. In this review, I summarize current knowledge of innate and adaptive immunity to Salmonella and highlight features of this response that have emerged from recent studies. These include the heterogeneity of the antigen-specific T-cell response to intestinal infection, the prominence of microbial mechanisms to impede T- and B-cell responses, and the contribution of non-cognate pathways for elicitation of T-cell effector functions. Together, these different issues challenge an overly simplistic view of host–pathogen interaction during mucosal infection, but also allow deeper insight into the real-world dynamic of protective immunity to intestinal pathogens.